Medesthetics

NOV-DEC 2018

MedEsthetics—business education for medical practitioners—provides the latest noninvasive cosmetic procedures, treatment trends, product and equipment reviews, legal issues and medical aesthetics industry news.

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studies on the use of topical tretinoin products during pregnancy have not identified an association with topical tretinoin and major birth defects or miscarriage. The available studies have methodologic limitations, including small sample size and in some cases, lack of physical exam by an expert in birth defects. There are published case reports of infants exposed to topical tretinoin during the first trimester that describe major birth defects similar to those seen in infants exposed to oral retinoids; however, no pattern of malformations has been identified and no causal association has been established in these cases. The significance of these spontaneous reports in terms of risk to the fetus is not known. Animal Data Tretinoin in a 0.05% gel formulation was topically administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis at doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 1 g/kg/day (0.05, 0.15, 0.5 mg tretinoin/kg/day). Possible tretinoin malformations (craniofacial abnormalities [hydrocephaly], asymmetrical thyroids, variations in ossification, and increased supernumerary ribs) were observed at maternal doses of 0.5 mg tretinoin/kg/day (approximately 2 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison and assuming 100% absorption). These findings were not observed in control animals. Other maternal and reproductive parameters in tretinoin-treated animals were not different from control. For purposes of comparison of the animal exposure to human exposure, the MRHD is defined as 4 g of ALTRENO applied daily to a 60-kg person. Other topical tretinoin embryofetal development studies have generated equivocal results. There is evidence for malformations (shortened or kinked tail) after topical administration of tretinoin to pregnant Wistar rats during organogenesis at doses greater than 1 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison and assuming 100% absorption). Anomalies (humerus: short 13%, bent 6%, os parietal incompletely ossified 14%) have also been reported when 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 50 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison and assuming 100% absorption) was topically applied to pregnant rats during organogenesis. Supernumerary ribs have been a consistent finding in rat fetuses when pregnant rats were treated topically or orally with retinoids. Oral administration of tretinoin during organogenesis has been shown to induce malformations in rats, mice, rabbits, hamsters, and nonhuman primates. Fetal malformations were observed when tretinoin was orally administered to pregnant Wistar rats during organogenesis at doses greater than 1 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison). In the cynomolgus monkey, fetal malformations were reported when an oral dose of 10 mg/kg/day was administered to pregnant monkeys during organogenesis (approximately 100 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison). No fetal malformations were observed at an oral dose of 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 50 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison). Increased skeletal variations were observed at all doses in this study and dose-related increases in embryo lethality and abortion were reported in this study. Similar results have also been reported in pigtail macaques. Oral tretinoin has been shown to be fetotoxic in rats when administered at doses 10 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison. Topical tretinoin has been shown to be fetotoxic in rabbits when administered at doses 4 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison. Lactation Risk Summary There are no data on the presence of tretinoin or its metabolites in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. It is not known whether topical administration of tretinoin could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable concentrations in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for ALTRENO and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from ALTRENO. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of ALTRENO for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris have been established in pediatric patients age 9 years to less than 17 years based on evidence from two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled, 12-week trials and an open-label pharmacokinetic study. A total of 318 pediatric subjects aged 9 to less than 17 years received ALTRENO in the clinical studies [see Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical Studies in full Prescribing Information]. The safety and effectiveness of ALTRENO in pediatric patients below the age of 9 years have not been established. Geriatric Use Clinical trials of ALTRENO did not include any subjects age 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility A 2-year dermal mouse carcinogenicity study was conducted with topical administration of 0.005%, 0.025% and 0.05% of a tretinoin gel formulation. Although no drug-related tumors were observed in surviving animals, the irritating nature of the drug product precluded daily dosing, confounding data interpretation and reducing the biological significance of these results. Studies in hairless albino mice with a different formulation suggest that concurrent exposure to tretinoin may enhance the tumorigenic potential of carcinogenic doses of UVB and UVA light from a solar simulator. This effect was confirmed in a later study in pigmented mice, and dark pigmentation did not overcome the enhancement of photocarcinogenesis by 0.05% tretinoin. Although the significance of these studies to humans is not clear, patients should minimize exposure to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet irradiation sources. The genotoxic potential of tretinoin was evaluated in an in vitro bacterial reversion test, an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes and an in vivo rat micronucleus assay. All tests were negative. In dermal fertility studies of another tretinoin formulation in rats, slight (not statistically significant) decreases in sperm count and motility were seen at 0.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison and assuming 100% absorption), and slight (not statistically significant) increases in the number and percent of nonviable embryos in females treated with 0.25 mg/kg/day and above (approximately the MRHD based on BSA comparison and assuming 100% absorption) were observed. PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information). Manufactured for: Dow Pharmaceutical Sciences, a division of Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC Bridgewater, NJ 08807 USA By: Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. Laval, Quebec H7L 4A8, Canada U.S. Patent Number: 6,517,847 Altreno and Ortho Dermatologics are trademarks of Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. or its affiliates. © 2018 Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC 10/2018 ALT.0031.USA.18 9650300

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